NSES Content Standards (Science)
5-8 A1. Abilities – Inquiry – Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations
5-8 A1. Abilities – Inquiry – Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence
5-8 A2. Abilities – Understandings – Technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations
5-8 A2. Abilities – Understandings – Scientific explanations emphasize evidence and use scientific principles, models, and theories
5-8 D3. Earth and Space Science – Earth in the Solar System – Seasons result from variations in the amount of the sun’s energy hitting the surface, due to the tilt of the earth’s rotation on its axis and the length of the day
5-8 G2. History and Nature of Science – Nature of Science – Scientists formulate and test their explanations of nature using observation, experiments, and theoretical and mathematical models
9-12 A1. Abilities – Inquiry – Use technology and mathematics to improve investigation
9-12 A1. Abilities – Understanding – Scientists rely on technology to enhance the gathering and manipulation of data
9-12 A1. Abilities – Understanding – Mathematical tools and models guide and improve the posing of questions, fathering data, constructing explanations, and communicating results
9-12 G2. History and Nature of Science – Nature of Scientific Knowledge – Science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing through the use of empirical standards, logical arguments, and skepticism, as scientists strive for the best possible explanations about the natural world
AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks (Science)
I B 6-8 1.Scientists differ greatly in what phenomena they study and how they go about their work. Although there is no fixed set of steps that all scientists follow, scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected evidence.
I C 6-8 6.Computers have become invaluable in science because they speed up and extend people’s ability to collect, store, compile, and analyze data, prepare research reports, and share data and ideas with investigators all over the world.
III A 6-8 1.Technology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space and other remote locations, sample collection and treatment, measurement, data collection and storage, computation, and communication of information.
IV B 6-8 4. Because the earth turns daily on an axis that is tilted relative to the plane of the earth’s yearly orbit around the sun, sunlight falls more intensely on different parts of the earth during the year. The difference in heating of the earth’s surface produces the planet’s seasons and weather patterns.
XI B 6-8 3.Different models can be used to represent the same thing. What kind of a model to use and how complex it should be depends on its purpose. The usefulness of a model may be limited if it is too simple or if it is needlessly complicated. Choosing a useful model is one of the instances in which intuition and creativity come into play in science, mathematics, and engineering.
I A 9-12 5. Scientists in any one research group tend to see things alike, so even groups of scientists may have trouble being entirely objective about their methods and findings. For that reason, scientific teams are expected to seek out the possible sources of bias in the design of their investigations and in their data analysis. Checking each other’s results and explanations helps, but that is no guarantee against bias.
NCTM Standards (Mathematics)
IA8-1. Work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems
IB8-1. Understand the meaning and effects of arithmetic operations with fractions, decimals, and integers
IC12-2. Judge the reasonableness of numerical computations and their results
IIB12-5. Judge the meaning, utility, and reasonableness of the results of symbol manipulations, including those carried out by technology
IVB12-4. Use unit analysis to check measurement computations
VI-2. Solve problems that arise in mathematics and other contexts
X-3. Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena
NETS Performance Indicators (Technology)
6-8 4. Use content-specific tools, software, and simulations to support learning and research.
9-12 6. Evaluate technology-based options, including distance and distributed education, for lifelong learning.
9-12 9. Investigate and apply expert systems, intelligent agents, and simulations in real-world situations.
9-12 10. Collaborate with peers, experts, and others to contribute to a content-related knowledge base by using technology to compile, synthesize, produce, and disseminate information, models, and other creative works.